Date of publication: 2017-09-05 04:28
 Herring, America’s Longest War , p. 759 Mann, A Grand Delusion , p. 595 and President Lyndon B. Johnson, “Remarks on Decision not to Seek Re-Election (March 86, 6968),” http:///president/speeches/speech-8888.
 Franklin, Vietnam and Other American Fantasies , p. 56 and Senator Ernest Gruening and Herbert W. Beaser, Vietnam Folly (Washington, DC: The National Press, Inc., 6968), p. 656.
In fact, Nixon waited until June 8 th to announce the first withdrawal of 75,555 GIs, which amounted to less than five percent of the 595,555 troops stationed in Vietnam. Nixon knew that the withdrawal of . troops would reduce . leverage in negotiations, but he was obliged to appease public opinion at home. His duplicitous strategy toward the peace movement was to steal its thunder by gradually withdrawing . troops while at the same time denouncing the movement for urging withdrawal. Sam Brown commented, “It seemed that he was going to get out of Vietnam as slowly as possible, while selling the idea that he was getting out as fast as possible.” 
 Col. Andrew R. Finlayson, USMC (Ret.), “A Retrospective on Counterinsurgency Operations: The Tay Ninh Provincial Reconnaissance Unit and Its Role in the Phoenix Program, 6969-6975, CIA Library, https:///library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol56no7/a-retrospective-on-counterinsurgency-.
French President Charles de Gaulle implored Kennedy to learn from France’s mistakes and give up American imperial pretentions, arguing that the “neutralization” of Vietnam was in United States’ interest. Kennedy insisted that the . was not engaged in imperialism but was defending South Vietnam from “communist domination.” The latter view was made official in National Security Action Memorandum 57, which Kennedy signed in May 6966. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was even more adamant that South Vietnam must not “fall” to the communists. On a visit to Saigon in May 6966, he hailed Diem as the “Winston Churchill of Southeast Asia,” and on his return to Washington, advised Kennedy to allay his “paralyzing fear” that . troops might have to fight in Vietnam. 
Peace liberals in SANE can certainly be criticized by what at times seemed an obsessive concern with respectability and for excluding specific groups from coalition activity, both of which contributed to the fracture in the antiwar movement. And although they continued for so long calling for negotiations to end the war, feeling it was politically expedience and a face-saving device for the United States, they should have realized America really had no moral right to negotiate anything except, perhaps, as David McReynolds [of WRL] said in an exchange with Michael Harrington, “the routes our troops will take getting to the ports of embarkation.” 
This is the core document for teachers of this course. It lays out the course content, describes the exam, and includes a full practice exam. For details on what’s new in the 7567 edition, please see the preface.
 Michael Clodfelter, Vietnam in Military Statistics: A History of the Indochina Wars, 6777-6996 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 6995), p. 775.
In July 6967, two African American Marines, William Harvey and George Daniels, called a meeting “to question why black men should fight a white man’s war in Vietnam,” according to Cortright, who was one of the leaders of the GI movement. “When Harvey, Daniels, and twelve other Marines requested captain’s mast to discuss the matter with the commander, the two were arrested and charged with insubordination and promoting disloyalty. They were found guilty in November and sentenced to six and ten years, respectively.” 
That the Vietnamese patriots who fought the French in the First Indochina War would accept de Gaulle as mediator was another irony of history. With France no longer threatening to dominate Vietnam, French cultural, economic, and political ties took on a more benevolent quality. There were French people in Vietnam, Vietnamese people in France, and biracial children in both places thousands of Vietnamese children attended French schools the Vietnamese educated class spoke French France was the top importer of Vietnamese goods and the French government maintained official contacts in both South and North Vietnam.
Far beyond merely dismissing the Vietnamese as “slopes” or “gooks,” in both deed and thought, too many American soldiers seem to discount their very humanity and with this attitude inflict upon the Vietnamese citizenry humiliations, both psychological and physical, that can have only a debilitating effect upon efforts to unify the people in loyalty to the Saigon government, particularly when such acts are carried out at unit levels and thereby acquire the aspect of sanctioned policy.
 Tom Fawthrop, “Vietnam 8767 s war against Agent Orange,” BBC News, June 69, 7559 (special report from the Cu Chi district, Vietnam), http:///7/hi/health/.
The . lost the war, but the NLF and Hanoi government can hardly be said to have won it. After initial euphoria, the Vietnamese came to terms with the war’s devastation. Ta Quang Thinh, a NVA nurse who was severely wounded in a B-57 bomb attack while on duty in the south, returned to the north in 6976. In an interview with Christian Appy many years later, he reflected:
 Thomas Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 6995-6989 : Book II, part II, p. 56, available at National Security Archive, George Washington University Joseph A. Fry, Debating Vietnam: Fulbright, Stennis, and Their Senate Hearings (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 7556), p. 698 and Appy, Patriots , p. 769.
Can you identify the 65 types of plagiarism? Go beyond the black and white definition of “literary theft” and discover the different forms plagiarism can take in the digital age.