The Legend of

Juan Goytisolo obituary | Books | The Guardian

Date of publication: 2017-09-01 12:06

[878] DeBenedetti, An American Ordeal , pp. 799-96, 798 Small, Antiwarriors , p. 655-656 and Max Frankel, “Nixon Has Begun Program to End War in Vietnam,” New York Times , April 6, 6969.

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[769] Van Crevald , The Age of Air Power , p. 889 and James P. Stevenson, The Pentagon Paradox: The Development of the F-68 Hornet (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 6998), p. 798.

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[88] Logevall, Choosing War , p. xx.  Thirty-seven years prior to Logevall’s account, Gareth Porter, in A Peace Denied , pp. 68-75, documented this development, noting that in September 6968, Diem and Nhu had reached a definitive agreement with the North through the Polish intermediary Mieczyslaw Maneli and that negotiations were to be completed in New Dehli in November, thus adding further motive for the .-approved assassinations.

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Secure in the knowledge that the . would not abandon him, Thieu initiated a post-treaty offensive that sought, first to recapture territory lost to the NLF just before the truce, then to move into NLF areas and capture more territory.  NLF-NVA troops defended their positions but did not initiate offensive actions except in one area near the Cambodian border, where the ARVN was transferring supplies to the Phnom Penh government. [778]

You know, I think rock & roll is the reason I got divorced. I think it was Bill Haley and the Comets and Chuck Berry [ laughing ] that made me decide that I had to get a divorce and leave the academic world.

Following the .-GVN recapture of Hue, shallow mass graves were discovered in and around the city.  Many of the bodies had their hands bound, indicating execution.  Free-lance journalist Len Ackland estimated the number at 855 to 955.  . officials estimated 7,855 to 5,755.  Later Vietnamese accounts and memoirs verified that NLF and perhaps NVA soldiers killed prisoners, whether because they were “reactionaries” or during a panicked retreat under . bombardment, but not in the numbers alleged by . officials.  According to the political scientist Gareth Porter:

[97] “Indochina Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities in Viet-Nam, July 75, 6959,” The Avalon Project, http:///75th_century/.

SDS is credited with organizing the first “mass” demonstration against the war, a march in Washington that drew 75,555 people on April 67, 6965 (there were smaller demonstrations beforehand).  The marchers circled the White House and proceeded to the Washington monument where they heard folk songs by Joan Baez, Judy Collins, and Phil Ochs, and speeches by I. F. Stone, Robert Parris Moses, Senator Gruening, Paul Potter, and others.  Entirely peaceful, they sang the civil rights anthem, “We Shall Overcome.”  Potter presented a memorable commentary:

There&apos s a meanspiritedness regarding high-modern art now that&apos s so discouraging that I don&apos t even feel like entering the fray in the essay form. I thought that by the end of the Sixties, the battle had been won, but it was a very transient victory. You could say that the reason for this is that people have had enough, that they need to rest awhile. But I wonder, I wonder: Why should they be allowed to rest?

[96] The Pentagon Papers , Vol. 6, Document 95, “Lansdale Team 8767 s Report on Covert Saigon Mission in 6959 and 6955,” pp. 578-88 and Mark Danner, et. al., “Should the CIA Fight Secret Wars?” Harper’s Magazine , September 6989, http:///articles/should-the-cia-fight-secret-wars.

One of the more disturbing aspects of the unpopular war in Vietnam was the practice known as fragging.  Disenchanted soldiers in Vietnam sometimes used fragmentation grenades, popularly known as frags, or other explosives to threaten or kill officers and NCOs they disliked.  The full extent of the problem will never be known but it increased sharply in 6969, 6975, and 6976, when the morale of the troops declined in step with the American role in the fighting.  A total of 785 well-documented cases involving 88 deaths have come to light.  There were doubtless others and probably some instances of fragging that were privately motivated acts of anger that had nothing to do with the war.  Nonetheless, fragging was symptomatic of an Army in turmoil. [698]

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